Chapter Four: Colloidal Silver Research and Development
Free Online Ebook: Colloidal Silver An Analytical Investigative Report and Theoretical Overview
This section is intended to inspire the development and identification of potential markets as well as applications for colloidal silver and general information.
The following data provides a snapshot of various developing markets, potential uses for colloidal silver as well as for general research considerations and informational links.
General current or potential functional uses and research considerations:
Silver band aides – (bandages)for wounds;
Silver soaked & dried pajamas – Fighting MRSA;
Colostomy bags – infection preventative;
Silver building materials – antimicrobial;
Biocide Fibres – anti-fungal and anti-microbial additives;
Silver impregnated ceramic – water purification;
Silver atomized dispersal – steam room purification;
Silver impregnated shoe inserts – odor control;
Colloidal silver milk additive – greatly prolonging shelf life in minute amounts;
Personal care products additive – for prolonging shelf life;
Supermarket products – for washing vegetables;
Silver Nanoparticle Coated Polyurethane Foam – as an Antibacterial Water Filter;
Silver impregnated ceramic water filter – example Potters for Peace project PDF;
Medicine – the medical sector was one of the first end-uses;
Burn and wound products – burn dressings, surgical instruments and hand sanitizer;
Hospital textiles in hospitals – for reduction of infectious microbes in curtains and other materials;
Sportswear – to prevent odor in clothing;
In the home consumers products – washing machines, refrigerators, HVAC filters, brooms, dehumidifiers as well as food containers that employ silver nano particles to kill bacteria and limit mold growth.
Similarities and Differences between Silver Ions and Silver in Nanoforms as Antibacterial Agents – 2018 Feb
“Silver is considered as antibacterial agent with well-known mode of action and bacterial resistance against it is well described. The development of nanotechnology provided different methods for the modification of the chemical and physical structure of silver, which may increase its antibacterial potential. The physico-chemical properties of silver nanoparticles and their interaction with living cells differs substantially from those of silver ions. Moreover, the variety of the forms and characteristics of various silver nanoparticles are also responsible for differences in their antibacterial mode of action and probably bacterial mechanism of resistance. The paper discusses in details the aforementioned aspects of silver activity….”
Study Shows Silver Nanoparticles Attach to HIV-1 virus
Published October 14, 2005, in Nanotechnology
“In the first-ever study of metal nanoparticles’ interaction with HIV-1, silver nanoparticles of sizes 1-10nm attached to HIV-1 and prevented the virus from bonding to host cells. The study, published in the Journal of Nanotechnology, was a joint project between the University of Texas, Austin and Mexico University, Nuevo Leon.”
The late Dr. M. Paul Farber states in his book “The Micro Silver Bullet” on page XXVI the following:
“I will let the scientific evidence speak for itself.” — “I was able to begin half a dozen pioneering patents on Mild Silver Protein about one month ago. I am pleased to inform you that it is working faster than I anticipated, and many of them are either symptom-free or close to it, with no side effects.”
Another quote from the same book qualifies the above statement, in a copy of a letter to Dr. Paul Farber, received from his associate Myer Rice, M.D., Ph.D. dated June 18, 1996, on page XXXI states: “Dr. Paul Farber. Enclosed are the results of the first three months of clinical trials of HIV-infected patients using Collag-40. Anecdotally, all patients are feeling well with no clinical symptoms or active opportunistic infections. As the records indicate, CD-4 Cells are in general on the way up, all individuals that started with active P-24 antigenicity have reverted to negative.”
Some of the developing research even if only potentially real, is certainly worth doing follow-up research due to the gravity and magnitude of the implications. For instance, the title of his book: “AIDS STUDY Eight people recover from the Aids Virus in a scientifically documented study. An additional seven Aids Patients recover as verified by anecdotal reports. Testimonials Aids Virus Gulf War Syndrome.”
Reference: Book cover and title: “The Micro Silver Bullet” “A Preliminary Scientifically Documented Answer to the Three Largest Epidemics in the World: Lyme Disease – Aids Virus – Yeast Infection – (and the Common Cold)”
Author – Dr. M. Paul Farber, B.A., B.S., M.A., M.S.., N.D., Ph.D., D.C.
It is my understanding that Dr. Farber met an untimely death before his clinical trials or patents were completed. Our sincere condolences to his family, friends and associates.
Reduction in HIV Viral Load in Mild Silver Protein Case Studies
by Kimberly Pryor
“A recent article appearing in the Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine lends further merit to the use of silver as an anti-viral agent. The article titled
“Reduction of Viral Load in AIDS Patients with Intravenous Mild Silver Protein–Three Case Reports” is an intriguing glimpse into the potential applications of an important, but often overlooked metal. In the article, study authors Dean, Mitchell, Whizar-Lugo, and South, explore silvers history in the pre-antibiotic era–and report their impressive results on the intravenous use of mild silver protein in three case studies.”
Original link to report: http://intelegen.com/ImmuneSystem/silver_protein_review.htm
Dr. Michael C. Biamonte D.N., CCN
Michael C. Biamonte, of the Biomante Center for Clinical Nutrition, a certified clinical nutritionist and Naturopath, is a nutritional practitioner and has been involved in clinical research since the 1980’s.
The Biomante Center for Clinical Nutrition has been involved in researching nutritional protocols for HIV and AIDS sufferers, among other chronic illnesses.
Michael Biamonte Quote:
“…At this point, I went back to the drawing board. I remained level headed enough to see that while Dr. Clark’s program may not be making people HIV negative, it still was helping people a great deal, so there were things right about it and truth to be had in it…”
“…The researcher mentioned that he had tested silver against HIV in a test tube, and it had killed it. I then had the idea to try silver on these HIV patients and monitor them with the viral load tests. I was careful to only use silver that had been tested by independent labs and had its effectiveness verified. In addition to the silver, I gave them some other supportive factors. After 6 months of working on this protocol, it was completed…”
[ please note that colloidal silver was not the only substance used ]
“…After an average of 8 months to 1 year on this program, 90% of the patients are reporting that their viral load tests are scoring less than 400 copies, which in English means the HIV virus is no longer detectable…”
More Information on Michael Biomante:
Referenced June, 2007 link has since been removed. See a pattern here?
Article by Marvin Robey: A Safe and Simple Treatment for Aids
“The Herald of Provo Utah, February 2, 1992, ran an article on Pg. D1, in which a member of the administrative staff of Brigham Young University by the name of Daryl Tichy has been successfully experimenting with colloidal silver in the treatment of AIDS, along with warts and parvovirus in a dog. “Tichy said he had the material [colloidal silver] tested at two different labs; results showed the solution killed a variety of pathogens, including the HIV virus.” Tichy then states, “I don’t have a doubt in my mind.” He says he has not been able to obtain funds to continue his research.”
Promising cure to URTI pandemics, including the Avian flu: has the final solution to the coming plagues been discovered?
“Emerging medical studies confirm the stellar, broad-spectrum virotoxic efficacy of oligodynamic silver both in vitro and in vivo. This includes some of the most formidable viral organisms like HIV (including co-infections) (3-11) and Herpesvirus hominis (HSV). (12-18) Despite the low yields of oligodynamic silver of the past 100 years common to silver-based drugs, the collective authoritative medical literature has documented efficacy of silver’s virotoxicity against over 24 viruses.”
Original link http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_273/ai_n16118925
Silver Used To Battle Bacteria Inside Your Home
Can Help In Food Containers, Clothes & Washing Machines
Sep 28, 2006 6:29 pm US/Eastern
“I’ve used containers before where stuff in two, three days, it goes bad,” he said.
Now a new kind of container–infused with pieces of silver– may solve that problem.
Silver has been used for decades by the medical community to fight bacteria and odor. And, now it’s showing up in everything from clothes to soap…even washing machines. “
Original Link: http://cbs4boston.com/seenon/local_story_271153617.html
Use of Silver Nanoparticles Rapidly Expanding in the Consumer and Medical Markets, Says Bourne Research
Bourne Research – May 4, 2006
SCOTTSDALE, Ariz. — Silver nanoparticles are emerging as one of the fastest growing product categories in the Nanotechnology industry, according to Bourne Research (http://www.bourneresearch.com). The market research firm reports that the ability to produce particles of silver at the nanoscale is allowing companies to leverage its known antimicrobial properties in ways never before imagined as an effective means of infection control.
“Silver nanoparticles may very well become the next ‘it’ product, much like antibacterial soaps took the consumer sector by storm a decade …
Original link http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-144604264.html
Understanding the Germicidal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles
“Silver nanoparticles are an effective tool for killing disease-causing bacteria. But despite their widespread use in catheters, clothing, toys, cosmetics, and many other products, (1) investigators haven’t fully understood whether their effectiveness is a function of the release of germicidal silver ions, some feature specific to their nanoparticle form, or both. Researchers at Rice University now report evidence that the release of dissolved silver ions is the driving force behind silver nanoparticles’ germicidal action. (2)”
“In its latest position document on Management of Wound Infection, the European Wound Management Association has examined the role of topical antimicrobial therapy in the management of acute and chronic wounds  . It has also provided advice on the use and selection of antimicrobial dressing products across a range of wound types. An important element in bacterial management has been the renewed interest in the use of ionic silver for a wide range of topical antimicrobial applications aimed at reducing the risk of wound infection, facilitating the treatment of infected wounds and reducing the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. This is largely attributed to its bactericidal efficacy at low concentration and its relatively limited toxicity to human cells. This paper reviews the background to the rise in use of silver for wound care and the potential for emergent bacterial resistance to silver.”
Silver and its application as an antimicrobial agent
Authors: Abdulkareem Melaiye; Wiley J Youngs
Source: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, Volume 15, Number 2, 1 February 2005, pp. 125-130(6)
Publisher: Informa Healthcare
Original link: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/apl/ etp/2005/00000015/00000002/art00001
A Scientific Perspective on the Use of Topical Silver Preparations
– Robert E. Burrell, PhD
Antimicrobial activity. Silver is effective against a broad range of aerobic, anaerobic, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi, and viruses.1,6-8 In combination with its broad antimicrobial properties, silver also appears to have other pro-healing or anti-inflammatory properties as suggested by the loss of rubor in chronic wounds treated with silver.2
The concentrations of silver that are needed to create a biological effect are dependent upon the local environment. In a pristine aqueous system, concentrations as low as 10 ug/L are effective in controlling bacteria, while in complex organic media, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increases 2,000-fold to the 20 to 40 ug/mL concentration reported by Ricketts et al.9 Yin et al6 determined MICs for five clinically relevant bacteria in Mueller-Hinton broth, a complex organic growth medium. The MIC values ranged from 5 to 12.5 ug Ag/mL.
Lack of toxicity. Few reported cases of silver toxicity exist in the medical literature. This suggests a low mammalian cell toxicity. Although cases of silver sensitivity (allergic responses) have occurred, no other pathological conditions have been noted despite large exposures to silver in burn wound treatment.”
A Discussion of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent: Alleviating the Confusion
– David W. Brett, MS, BS
Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for centuries. Historically, SSD and silver nitrate have been the only choices in the medical arena but in recent years numerous silver-based antimicrobial agents have become available to the clinician. Relevant literature and practicing clinicians point to much confusion regarding the use of silver as an antimicrobial agent — confusion created by manufacturers and authors voicing different viewpoints. By addressing six particularly relevant factors regarding the properties of this intriguing element using data and opinions published in the peer-reviewed literature, independently generated data, and sound scientific principles, it is hoped that clinicians can start to work through some the confusion and become confident in their use of silver dressings. The ultimate goal is to provide the best level of patient care possible and to ensure that silver (an effective antimicrobial agent) is just as efficacious in future years as it is today.” Ditto -Ed
Original link: http://www.o-wm.com/article/5125
Colloidal silver-enhanced ceramic water filter
Since 1998, Potters for Peace has been developing a low-tech, low-cost, colloidal silver-enhanced ceramic water filter; the Filtron. Field experience and clinical test results have shown this filter to effectively eliminate approximately 99.88% of most water born disease agents. The Filtron has been cited by the United Nations’ Appropriate Technology Handbook and is used by the International Red Cross and the Nobel Prize-winning medical relief organization Doctors Without Borders. The ultimate objective of the Filtron project is to provide employment for local potters while meeting an urgent demand for safe water in rural and marginalized communities, particularly in the Third World. www.potpaz.org
Every day 5.000 children die due to unsanitary water, (WHO 2005). Since 1998 Potters for Peace has traveled the world teaching the fabrication of a low-cost ceramic water filter in these needy communities to the local people, helping to bring clean, potable water to those who need it most.
Potential of Silver Nanoparticle-Coated Polyurethane Foam As an Antibacterial Water Filter
” (Barraque, 2003). Several investigations have been carried out on the bactericidal effect of nanoparticles and their applications in the plastics, health, textile, and paint industry (Zuhuang, 2003; Chen and Chen, 2002; Lee et al., 2003; Fechner and Zimmer, 2003; Reimer and Fleischer, 1999). Pesticide removal from drinking water with the help of nanoparticles was reported in our previous work (Nair and Pradeep, 2004). The aim of this study is to demonstrate the antibacterial properties of the polyurethane foam coated with silver nanoparticles”
Original link: http://www.chem.iitm.ac.in/pradeep/webpage/publishedpdf/128.pdf
Headline: Nano Washing Machine Heading to UK
News source: Daily Mail, London by Sean Poulter via Small Times
If you’re a stickler for cleanliness, it sounds like a dream invention, a washing machine that destroys bugs in the weekly laundry. Its designers at Samsung claim the technology will remove or kill 99.9 percent of odor-causing bacteria, including E.coli.
And they say the system will keep the clothes fresh for up to 30 days. Called the Silver Nano Health System, it works by bombarding clothing with jets of cold water primed with tiny silver ions. Users do not need to add hot water, bleach or other chemicals. As a result, it saves energy and treats delicate items, such as lingerie, more gently, giving them a longer life.
Original link: http://www.samsung.com/ph/silvernano/
THE GROWTH OF COLLOIDAL SILVER NANO-WIRES AND GOLD PLATELETS WITH MAGNETIC FIELD
Original link: http://flux.aps.org/meetings/YR04/MAR04/baps/abs/S8370.html
Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for Gram-negative bacteria.
Sondi I , Salopek-Sondi B .
Center for Marine and Environmental Research, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. firstname.lastname@example.org
“The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against E. coli was investigated as a model for Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteriological tests were performed in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium on solid agar plates and in liquid systems supplemented with different concentrations of nanosized silver particles. These particles were shown to be an effective bactericide. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) were used to study the biocidal action of this nanoscale material. The results confirmed that the treated E. coli cells were damaged, showing formation of “pits” in the cell wall of the bacteria, while the silver nanoparticles were found to accumulate in the bacterial membrane. A membrane with such a morphology exhibits a significant increase in permeability, resulting in death of the cell. These nontoxic nanomaterials, which can be prepared in a simple and cost-effective manner, may be suitable for the formulation of new types of bactericidal materials. ” PMID: 15158396 [PubMed – indexed forMEDLINE]
Link to report PMID: 15158396 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Medical, biocide research may open new markets for silver
By: Dorothy Kosich
Posted: ’22-NOV-06 08:00′ GMT © Mineweb 1997-2006
“Aspley estimated that over 700 types of pathogens have been documented to succumb to silver-based drugs. There are three distinct silver-based drugs, silver salts, silver proteins, and colloidal silver and silver hydrosol.
Biocides are chemicals capable of killing living organisms and are more commonly known as antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, germicides and so on. Silver basically disables the food source required by bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and fungi to survive and reproduce.
Oligodynamic silver refers to the power of extremely small concentration of metal ions, such as silver, to exert potent biocidal actions. While it is non-toxic to people and animals, oligodynamic silver is lethal to viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and even cancer cells, according to Aspley. Basically, silver ions destroy bacteria, viruses and other germs by disrupting a germ’s membrane proteins, deactivating bacterial enzymes, and preventing bacteria from replicating.
Among the bacteria which find silver lethal are salmonella, staph infections, streptococcus, and typhoid. The viruses which can’t tolerate silver include Herpes, Influenza, and even the common cold. Uniform Picoscalar Oligodynamic Silver Hydrosol (UOPSH) can attack and kill HIV/AIDs because of the ability for the silver particles to bind to the glycoprotein knobs, which supply the AIDs virus with protein.
The non-profit, Washington State-based Immunogenic Research Foundation is interested in clinical research about silver’s potential to combat global epidemics and pandemics including cancer, hepatitis C, HIV, Lymes Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and drug-resistant super-germs.
In a paper published last month in the international scientific journal Current Science, a team of scientists lauded the properties of Silver-Water Dispersion solution as an effective antibiotic. Their study tested 19 different antibiotics against seven pathogens, including resistant superbugs.”
Antibacterial effect of nanosized silver colloidal solution on textile fabrics
H. J. Lee 1 , S. Y. Yeo 1 and S. H. Jeong 1
Department of Fiber & Polymer Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Abstract: This paper deals with the antibacterial efficacy of nanosized silver colloidal solution on the cellulosic and synthetic fabrics. Two kinds of Bacteria; Gram-positive and Gram-negative, were used. TEM observation of silver nanoparticles showed their shape and size distribution. The particles were very small (2 – 5 nm) and had narrow distribution. SEM images of treated fabrics indicated silver nanoparticles were well dispersed on the surfaces of specimens. WAXS patterns did not show any peak of silver as the fabric had very small quantity of silver particles. However, ICP-MS informed the residual concentration of silver particles on fabrics before/after laundering. The antibacterial treatment of the textile fabrics was easily achieved by padding them with nanosized silver colloidal solution. The antibacterial efficacy of the fabrics was maintained after many times laundering.
Original link http://www.springerlink.com/content/n2g120j41r282124/
Mega-electron-volt ion beam induced anisotropic plasmon resonance of silver nanocrystals in glass
FOM Institute for Atmin and Molecular Physics (AMOLF)
Anti-flu disinfectant for London transport?
publication date: 23 October 2006
Transport for London (TfL) is considering the use of anti-flu disinfectants on its trains. There are reported to be plans to use the product on main line and tube trains and stations. It is currently being introduced onto the Hong Kong metro system by MTR, a company which is part of a consortium bidding for two new rail franchises – London Rail and West Midlands
The disinfectant, called nano silver-titanium dioxide coating (NSTDC), is being monitored in Hong Kong and may be used as part of its bid for the new franchises. The special nano coating will be applied to all surfaces touched by the Hong Kong underground’s daily 2.5 million commuters.
TfL says it is discussing plans for dealing with flu with government and says it is in touch with other metro companies, including that in Hong Kong.
Oiginal link: http://www.aslef.org.uk/C2B/PressOffice/display.asp?ID=465&Type=2
OLED Materials – Examining the Use of Silver as an Alternative Material for OLED Devices by Nanomarkets
Silver as an Alternative Material to Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) for OLED Lighting
Original link: http://www.azom.com/details.asp?ArticleID=4948
Why phones, keyboards and mice make me sick
Some new products can help keep the flu from spreading around your office
How to protect yourself
“Sure, you can clean your phone, desk, keyboard and mouse with disinfectant once in a while (don’t spray anything directly on the keyboard — use wipes), but you’re likely to forget, and most disinfectant products are mildly toxic anyway. You can also buy special condoms for your cell phone, but people will talk.
“A better approach is to take advantage of a new and growing mini-industry of antimicrobial phones, keyboards and mice. Most of these new gadgets are coated with material that includes modified silver, which you’ll see described as “nano-sliver” or “silver ion.”
Novel transducer for potentiometric sensors. Polish Patent:
Dybko A., Chudy M., Wróblewski W., Wojciechowski K., Brzózka Z.
Novel transducer for potentiometric sensors
date of application 29.08.2001
“the transducer structure was electrochemically covered with a silver layer (30 um in thickness) and next a silver chloride was fabricated on the top of it”
Original Link: http://csrg.ch.pw.edu.pl/patents/transducer/
Healing Chronic Infected Foot Wounds with Human Fibroblast-Derived Dermal Substitute and Silver Dressings
Original link: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/516861
MRSA and the use of silver dressings: overcoming bacterial resistance.
“Resistant bacteria, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are an ever-increasing global threat that has reached epidemic proportions and is extremely costly, both in terms of human suffering and the financial burden it places on healthcare systems.
The battle against bacterial resistance should focus on preventing the spread of contamination by reducing the risk of infection, educating both staff and patients in infection control, and improving standards of hygiene.
The problem of resistant bacteria has been exacerbated by the uncontrolled use of antibiotics, so a range of alternative measures are required to prevent the development of further resistance and manage infections. These include antibacterial preparations and dressings that contain silver…”
Original link: http://www.worldwidewounds.com/2004/november/Thomas/Introducing-Silver-Dressings.html
Silver Pyjamas To Fight MRSA
“AN unlikely new weapon in the fight against deadly hospital infections is being tested at Newham University Hospital. Patient pyjamas made with a fabric containing threads of silver are expected to be introduced for 12 months as part of the hospital’s attempts to eliminate MRSA. The trial, which is yet to be fully approved, will test the effectiveness of the so-called See it Safe fabric developed by Toray Textiles. The Nottinghamshire-based company claim tests have shown the fabric kills 99.9 percent of harmful bacteria in under an hour. Consultant microbiologist Dr Peter Wilson, who heads the hospital’s infection control team, approached Toray to offer the hospital as a site for the trial. Patients with MRSA will be asked for their permission to take part in tests. They will then be randomly allocated either the silver-lined pyjamas or identical bedwear made with standard fabric, and monitored during treatment. They will not know which pyjamas they are wearing.”
original link: http://tahilla.typepad.com/mrsawatch/2006/04/silver_pyjamas_.html
New Fabric Recognised To Kill MRSA
99.9% Eradication of Harmful Bacteria in Under One Hour
“Eighteen years of R&D lie behind the Toray fabrics which, through the presence of silver yarn, have been proven to eradicate 99.9% of over 800 micro-organisms in analyses conducted in accordance with the relevant standards and testing procedures. Toray Safe is proactive, not reactive and, through ionisation of the silver atoms, effectively eliminates microbial activity and destroys all harmful entities.
Additional Noted Benefits
In addition to these high levels of anti-microbial activity, the silver yarn also provides several other associated benefits. As examples, odour producing bacteria are inhibited by the silver itself, while the silver ions combine with ammonia and denatured proteins to yield odour reduction.
As silver is the most electrically conductive element known, any electrical charges present as a result of non-conductive materials rubbing together are instantly dissipated. ‘See it Safe’ fabrics, therefore, remain free of all electrical static. The resultant static-free area generated will not attract bacteria or skin squamae, which are potential carriers of harmful microbes.”
Silverlon Replaces Silver Sulfadiazine in Battlefield Burn Treatment
by: Adam Jay Doolittle
“Sulfadiazine, the burn cream against which all other burn dressings have been measured, according to the Shriner’s Burn Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio , is being replaced by the convenience of Silverlon fabric for treating burned U.S. soldiers on the battlefield.
Silverlon delivers bactericidal silver ions into burn wounds with the convenience of paper towel. It’s painless application and removal (no cream to be painfully wiped way when the wound has to be inspected) has made Silverlon the essential dressing carried by Army field medics in Iraq.
Silverlon dressings are immediately applied to fresh wounds in the field to eradicate bacteria, providing full antibacterial protection to he injured soldier on his way to a field hospital. The warmth of this new fabric is equally important, for it keeps the wounded soldier warm on his long flight to receive attention at the primary treatment center at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.”
“What we had actually done was rediscovered the fact that silver killed bacteria, which had been known for centuries … when antibiotics were discovered, clinical uses for silver as an antibiotic were discarded.”
– Dr. Robert Becker (in reference to his silver and wound healing experiments),
“Speaking generally, the colloidal metals are especially remarkable for their beneficial action in infective states – blood poisoning by germs. This action has been shown to be due to their stimulating influence and to their destructive effects on microorganisms and their toxins as shown by the immediate fall of temperature, and the subsidence of the constitutional symptoms of intoxication.”
– Dr. Leonard Keene Hirschberg, A.M., M.D. of John Hopkins.